Proper Dharma Seal I

 

Chapter 1: Xue Er (To Learn)

(14) The Master said, “An exemplary person does not crave for satiety when eating, nor seek comforts in dwelling. Prompt in action and cautious in speech, he approaches those who are well-versed in the principles of morality in order to correct himself. Such a person can be said to be keen in learning indeed!”

The Master said, “An exemplary person”. Here, ‘exemplary person’ refers to a moral person with principles. Does not crave for satiety when eating. What is the reason for this? It is because ‘eating and sex are two fundamental aspects of human nature.’ Not only are people fond of eating good food, they also want to gorge themselves full; otherwise, they will feel that they are not doing justice to this stinking skin bag. However, people who wish to cultivate the Way should not crave for satiety nor eat delicious things. Since ‘an exemplary person strives for the sake of the Way and not for food,’ he does not always think of eating delicacies. Well, what should be done? Apart from just having simple fare, it is also not necessary to stuff yourself. Does it mean you should go hungry then? That is also not right. In this case, how should you eat? At every meal, stop eating when you are about eighty percent full! As for the remaining twenty percent, share it with those people who have nothing to eat so that no one in this world will die of starvation. You might say, “If I saved on my food, would they be able to have it?” Do not be concerned about that! As long as you do not consume the rest of the food, you are not acting like a rice weevil. By not wasting the world’s resources, you have already fulfilled your responsibility. When it comes to eating, people generally say, “Just eat your fill and let it be.” Now, as exemplary persons who cultivate the Way, not only must we refrain from eating until we are full, we must also not seek to satisfy our appetites. By this, it means that we ‘basically have no intention of eating until we are full’ so that we always ‘have a touch of hunger on our face’ and ‘leave some room in our stomachs.’

Nor seek comforts in dwelling. The character ‘居’ (jū) means ‘dwelling’, a place where people live. In this respect, do not seek any manner of comforts or any fancy high-rise building. This is because ‘one may own a grand building with a thousand rooms but occupies merely a space of eight square feet when sleeping at night; one may possess ten thousand acres of fertile fields, yet one can only eat three meals a day.’ Now, here in the City of Ten Thousand Buddhas, we are doing even better because we only eat one meal a day. Therefore, do not seek comforts in dwelling. As long as we have a place to stay, that is sufficient. Take, for example, Yan Zi (a disciple of Confucius) who subsisted on ‘a bamboo dish basket of rice and a gourd dipper of drink.’ He ate his food from a bamboo tube and used something like a leaf sheath to drink water. He did not possess a teacup or a teapot or, for that matter, anything else. As for Chao Fu (Father Nest/Elder Nest), he built a sparrow’s nest on a tree and lived there. He did not even use a gourd dipper for drinking but merely used his hands to scoop up the water. Someone gave him a ladle and he hung it on the tree, but it created a din ‘bing bing bang’ whenever the wind blew. Hey! He hated it and promptly threw it away! Chao Fu was such a character! The ancients did not want any material things. This is the meaning of not craving for satiety when eating, nor seeking comforts in dwelling.

Prompt in action. The character ‘敏’ (mǐn) means to do things promptly and not procrastinate. If you want to translate the sutras, go ahead and do it. Do not wait and say, “Oh, I’ll get to with it in a week’s time.” After one week has passed, you say, “Oh, let’s wait until next week.” After two weeks have passed, you say, “Oh, it’s fine to delay for three weeks.” In this way, three weeks have passed and you haven’t done anything. During this period, what have you done? You have been dragging your feet, so much so that you fall asleep once you sit down to meditate. Yet, you still think that it is very good to do so. That is not correct! When you are prompt in action, you carry out all your tasks very promptly no matter what. If there is anything that you ought to do, act on it fast. However, do not be too eager! Overzealousness may hamper your efforts as the idiom goes too much is as bad as too little because you become nervous. That is also wrong. Therefore, do things at the right pace, being neither overenthusiastic nor slack.

Cautious in speech. Be very careful with your words and don’t simply say things perfunctorily. As the adage goes: ‘One word can make a country prosper but can also bring about its ownfall’. If you speak carelessly, then you are not being cautious in speech.

He approaches those who are well-versed in the principles of morality in order to correct himself. If there is anything that you do not understand, you must draw near to a moral person who cultivates and upholds the Way, or someone with the necessary skills and knowledge. In short, it means somebody who is better than yourself. The term ‘正焉’ (zhèng yān) means ‘to seek rectification.’ Approach others and seek their advice: “Am I right or wrong to do it this way? My own wisdom is insufficient and that leaves me no choice but to come and request for your guidance!”

Such a person can be said to be keen in learning indeed! This is the attitude of someone who truly wants to acquire some skills; be it the pursuit of knowledge, morality or wisdom, such a person is genuinely interested in learning! This was what Confucius said. 

 

【學而第一】

(十四) 子曰。君子食無求飽。居無求安。敏於事而慎於言。就有道而正焉。可謂好學也已。

「子曰。君子」:這個「君子」,就是一個有道德的君子、有道心的君子。「食無求飽」:為什麼他要「食無求飽」呢?這「食色性也」,人都歡喜吃好東西,不單歡喜吃好東西,而且還要往飽了吃;吃不飽,總覺得對不起這個臭皮囊,一定要給它飽飽地吃。可是想修道的人,不要求飽,不要吃得那麼飽、不要吃好的,「君子謀道不謀食」,不要盡想好的吃。那麼怎麼樣?不單不吃好的,還不一定要吃飽。那麼挨餓嗎?那又不對了。怎麼樣呢?每一餐吃得有八分飽就夠了!你那二分,可以留出來,給沒有飯吃的人吃,那世界就不會有餓死的人了。那麼說:「我留著,他們能吃得到嗎?」你不要管!只要你不吃,你就沒有做蛀米大蟲;沒有消耗世界的物質,那就盡到你的責任了。食無求飽,吃東西,一般人就說「吃飽了算了」。真正修道的君子,不單不吃飽,也不求著飽;不求著飽,這裏頭就是「根本就不想吃飽」,總是要「常帶三分飢」這樣子。

「居無求安」:居,就是「住的地方」 。住的地方,不要求怎麼樣享受、怎麼樣高樓大廈。你「大廈千間,夜眠不過八尺;良田萬頃,日食只是三餐。」那我們現在在萬佛城只有吃一餐,這更好了!所以「居無求安」,我們有地方能住就算了。好像那個顏子,「一簞食」,用個竹筒子來吃飯;「一瓢飲」,用那麼個葉鞘子來喝水。一個茶杯也沒有、一個茶壺也沒有,什麼都沒有的。這個巢父,他在樹上蓄個「雀窩」,在那樹上住。喝水就連瓢都不用,用手來捧著水喝;因為有人給他送個瓢,他把那個瓢掛到樹上,這風一吹、「乒乒乓」這麼一響,嘿!他討厭,拿掉了它、不要了!這巢父就這樣子!古來的人,身外之物什麼都不要。這是「食無求飽,居無求安」。

「敏於事」:敏,是「敏捷」,對什麼事情要做的,不要拖拖拉拉。你要翻譯經典,就翻譯經典,不要等著:「喔!我要拖一個禮拜之後再開工。」等拖一個禮拜:「喔!下個禮拜再說了。」又兩個禮拜,兩個禮拜後:「喔!拖三個禮拜是不錯的。」又拖了三個禮拜,也不幹事情。那麼這期間幹什麼呢?就是在那兒拖泥帶水;拖泥帶水,一打坐也睡著了,覺得這很好。這是不對的!這「敏於事」,對什麼事情,很敏捷去做:『應該做的,我快點做』。也不要太著急了!你太著急了,「過猶不及」,你 got nervous(緊張起來),那一樣也是錯誤的。所以要做得事情正對,也不「太過」、也不「不及」。

「而慎於言」:說話要很謹慎的,不能隨隨便便亂講話;「一言興邦,一言喪邦」,你隨便亂講話,這也就不是「慎於言」了。

「就有道而正焉」:你有不明白的,一定要去親近一個有道德的、有修持的、或者有功夫的、或者有學問的;總之,比你高的人。正焉,就「求正」,到那兒問一問,說:「我這麼樣子不知對不對呀?我自己智慧不夠,沒有選擇的餘地了,我請你來指導指導我!」

「可謂好學也矣」:這個樣子,才是真正的想要學出一點東西的人!學得有學問、有道德、有智慧,這才是真是一個好學的人了!這是孔子這樣說的。